INTEODX7CTORY ESSAY. 213
tioned at page 109, give an eminently European cast to the
In the Kashmir lakes many European forms of water-plants
occur, which, from the absence of similar expanses in the tem-
perate regions of the Himalaya, are rare or unknown else-
where , such are Nymphaa alba, already mentioned, VUlarsia
nymphaoides, Menyanthes trifoliata, and Trapa, besides Typha,
Arundo, and various Potamogetons, Sium angustifoliwm,) several
European Menthas, etc.
The Marri range, on the right bank of the Jelam, overhang-
ing the platform of Rawal Pindi, is a narrow ridge separating
two deep river-valleys, whose vegetation is quite tropical. On
its plainward slope it produces ordinary Himalayan forms
(Rhododendron arbwreum, etc.), but the vegetation soon be-
comes like that of the hills of Kashmir.
The mountains of Marri properly consist of the western
ierminatkm of the Himalaya (according to our definition of
that chain), which sweeps round the north of Kashmir, and
following the course of the Indus, turns to the -southward,
descending gradually into the plains of the Panjah, its most,
southern slopes forming the Salt range described at page 156.
Our only knowledge of the plants df Marri is derived from
a very valuable collection made by Dr. Fleming, who ascended
the ranges to 9700 feet. European forms abound in even a
greater proportion than in Kashmir, and many Himalayan
plants find there their extreme western limit; such are
Berberis Lycium. Rosa macrophylla.
Delphinium sanicwlqforme. Rubus lasiocarpus.
Quercus amulata. nivew.
dilatata. Potentilla Lesclienaultiana.
Pyrus laccata. Spiraea cMosa.
Cotoneastcr lacillaris. Machilus odoratissimus.
The valley of Hasora, north-west of Kashmir, is stffl more